Friday, November 13, 2009

Consumer Illustration Styles/Influences- Victorian-Digital

Rising Middle Class
Styles and Illustrators

Victorian Era
1837-1901
A rise in illustration in England- Prince Albert patron of design, and industrial revolution, spread to USA. Birth of political/satirical/editor
ial illustration as a response to uncertainties of industrial revolution included comic and narrative, also lifestyle/fashion as promoting “ideal” society is response to same uncertainties of industrial revolution. Printing technologies allowed for full color imagery to be used in advertisements- chromolithography. Before it was juts text.

Arthur Rackham- 1900’s childrens books. English

W.S. Gilbert- 1870’s-80’s

F.M. Howarth- late 1800’s early comics USA

Jose Guadalupe Posada- late 1800’s Mexican political cartoonist

George Cruikshank- mid 1800’s caricaturist/book illustrator

Albert D. Blashfield- LIFE magazine illustration contributor 1860’s-1920’s

Thomas Nast- political cartoonist

Charles Gibson- creator of “Gibson Girls”

Joseph Keppler- founder of Puck an American illustrated magazine

Daumier- French political satirist

Important periodicals/magazines of the time:
LIFE, Puck, Harpers, Ladies Home Journal, The Illustrated London News

Arts and Crafts/Art Noveau/Sachplakat 1900-1917

Applied art and design. Organic and nature inspired and Symbolist. Meant to make industry more easily digested. Product advertisements, bicycles, medicines- extended the idea of the Gibson girl- sex sells. Alternately in Germany Lucian Bernhard and the object poster- super simplified design mostly for advertising- early graphic design. After WWI drop in consumerism and these styles phased out gave rise to German Expressionism which wasn’t really connected to advertising.

Aubrey Beardsley

William Morris

Maxfield Parrish

Coles Phillips

William Bradley

Lucian Bernhard

Art Deco- post WWI 1917-1930’s
Western world reinventing their governments and economies. Streamlined version of Art Noveau and influenced by Cubism. Modern and futurist- predominantly a commercial style. Identifiable graphic code recognized internationally- emerged simultaneously in every industrialized nation. Airbrush was the most used media. Flapper look introduced.

Rockwell Kent

Jean Carlu

Fortunato Depero


Representational/Realism/Rockwellian
Between WWI and end of WWII peak in these styles. Photography was not yet dominant in commercial arts, but informed these styles. Purpose was to accentuate text or product, or act as propaganda. Abstraction was not acceptable because clarity in communication and representation was primary- emphasis on figure, composition, light. Growing consumerism in post depression America led to increased demand for advertising illustration and propaganda. In America to promote an ideal America- Rockwellian. “Golden Age” of illustration- took inspirations from classical art- Michelangelo, Raphael.
Important Publications etc: war propaganda, LIFE, Colliers, Saturday Evening Post, Ladies Home Journal, Reader’s Digest, American Magazine, various products.
Important groups: WPA, Ashcan school, Brandywine Illustrators, Charles E. Cooper Studios

Important Illustrators:
Homer Pyle
Winslow Homer
NC Wyeth, Andrew Wyeth
Norman Rockwell
JC Leyendecker

Pulp
Connected to Representational/Realism, aimed at adolescent men, developed into comic culture. Different from representational in that it was escapist, but inspired by realism. More exaggerated to indulge in sex, danger, adventure. Idea of pin-up girl. Also different was interest in science fiction- as connected to escapism. Eventually Comic Guild was established which setup censorship and content guidelines
Important publications etc: Popular Science, Popular Mechanics, Dime Mystery Stories, Esquire, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, Ballyhoo

Virgil Finlay
Norman Saunders
Walter Baumhofer
Vargas
George Petty

Pushpin
Post WWII founded in 1955 by Seymour Cwast and Milton Glaser. Sought to redefine post war design. Rebel against sentimental Realism as photography became more prevalent in advertising/editorial/etc, and looked for inspiration in pre WWI design- Victorian, Nouveau, and Art Deco and other forms. Also incorporated text into designs- hand drawn texts. Rejection of photography- traditional media and collage. Illustrations were no longer literal and open to the conceptual. Pushpin opened the door for other illustrators to experiment with other styles outside of Realism.
Important Illustrators:
Seymour Chwast
Milton Glaser
Ed Sorrel
Barry Zaid

Punk
Late 70’s and 80’s nihilistic and anarchistic movement. Untrained and purposefully “bad” design, DIY. Led to na├»ve art.
Important publications: Punk
Important Artists:
Bruce Carleton
Gary Panter
Scott Neary

Digital
Technological/Digital revolution changed the way illustration was produced-created a style which used digital technique to mimick traditional art forms and a style which embraced the pixel as parody.

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