Monday, November 30, 2009

More Images- Comics

doral cigs ad_unknown artist

carl rose

Carl Rose

Milton Caniff, Virgil Partch
Milton Caniff, Virgil Partch2
Milton Caniff, Virgil Partch

H.T. Webster, Alain
HT Webster, Alain

crockett johnson william freyse
Crockett Johnson, William Freyse

More Images- Victorian Advertisements

kids vic ad

medcine vic ad

JH Buffords

JH Bufford

wahoo fat lady vic ad

angels vic ad

Thursday, November 19, 2009

Important Comicstrips

9 chickweed lane-1993-Modern Woman working and making way in world
Abbie an' Slats-1937 until 1971
Abie the Agent-Jewish car salesman, helped promote jews in better light WWI related
ADVENTURes of patsy-1935-54 Fantasy comic, little girl
Adventures of Smilin' Jack- 1933-1973 Aviation Comic
Alley Oop-1932-current, used caveman as main character Comentary on Suburban life
Amazing Spider Man-1977-current, spin off from Comic Book,
Little Orpahn Annie-1934-74 misadventures of upbeat orphan girl
B.C.-1958-present, shows simplicity and the origin of ideas
Beetle Bailey-1950-present, humor about U.S. Army
Blondie-1930-current, life of a flapper girl to married upper crust now lives with him and 2 kids. Humors of the home comic
The Boondocks-1999-06, satire of city black kids living with grandfather in nice white suburan neighborhood
Boots and Her Buddies-1924-69, college/high school girls story
Bringing Up Father (Maggie and Jiggs)-1913-2000-Jiggs, irish guy who comes into wealth but still has old fashioned way, married to Maggie, social climbing wife
Buz Sawyer-1943 79, life abroad a ship, big in WW2 with Navy
Calvin and Hobbes-1985-95, Boyish Fantasy, midwest america
Captain Easy-1933-1988, action adventure comic. Army, WW2
Dennis the Menace-1951-present, boyhoood mischief,
Dilbert-cubical worker, lame life
Don Winslow of the Navy-1934-55, Spy, Naval
Dondi-1955-86, War orphan from WW2, italian, denice the menice like
Doonesbury-1970-current, political comic strip
Dream of the Rerebit Fiend-1904, Winsor McCay
the Family Circus1960-present, single pannel, family life
the Far Side-1980-95, one pannel, uncomfortable social situations
Flyin' Jenny-1939-46, WW2 aviation war comic
Fox Trot-1988-present, daily family life
Funky Winkerbean-1972-present, lives of highschool students, heavy subjects
Garfield-1978-present, comedic life of animals, most sydicated comic in the world
Hagar the Horrible-1973-present, life of a viking
happy Holligan-1900-32, life of a irish hobo
Joe palooka-1930-84, heavyweigh boxer
The Katzenjammer Kids-1912-present, off and on, rebel youth, german immagrant,
Krazy Kat-1913-44, animals, dreamlike, surrealism, innocent play
Little Jimmy-1904-58, silly little boy jimmy, constantly forgetting
Little Nemo in Slumberland-Adventures of a dreamland of a boy, greatest ever
Maakies-1994-present, alternative comic, dark humor
Marmaduke-1954-present, single panel, humor about a dog
Mother Goose and Grimm1984-present, dog, random funny shit
Peanuts1950-2000, greatness
Prince Valiant1937-present, continuous story, epic historical adventure
Stever Roper and Mike Nomad-1936-04, adventure strip,
Tank McNamara-1974-presnt, sports
Tarzan-1929-72, winderness man,
Terry and the Pirates-1934-97, Adventure sea book world travel
Winnie Winkle1920-96, working woman
The Wizard of Id-1964-presnt, freudian pyschological commentary on medieval world
The Yellow Kid-1895-98, no speach balloons, first comic strip
Ziggy-1969-presnt, misfurtunes that fall upon this guy who has not real things going on in his life.

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Push Pin

Seymour Chwast 1986

Barry Zaid 1970

Milton Glaser 1967


Peter Helck 1955

George Petty 1941

Herbert Paus 1929

Harry Scharre


Amos Sewell 1956

Al Parker 1945

Unknown 1935

Unknown 1932

Norman Rockwell 1929

unknown 1929

Wallace Smith 1927

Maxfield Parrish 1926

Unknown 1926

Norman Rockwell 1943(left) 1924(right)

Hohtac 1918

Achille Mauzan 1917

JC Leyendecker 1916

Unknown 1914

James Flagg 1912

Howard Pyle

Art Noveau/Arts & Craft/Object Poster

Cole Phillips 1927

Lucien Bernhard 1910

Aubrey Beardsely 1907

H. Gray 1899

Mackeller 1897

Will Brdaley 1896

Theophile Steinein 1896

Eric Gill

Victorian Style Illustration

Charles Gibson 1903

Unknown Artist 1899

Thomas Nast 1876

William Simpson 1871

Andre Gill 1868

Friday, November 13, 2009

Research Paper Outline


Because of an inextricable link to the ruling economic systems of the time commercial art at the turn of twentieth century tells the story of a rising middle class and changing consumer culture. Each style and form is a reflection on the influence of various socio-economic factors.

I. Brief summary of Industrial Revolution and capitalist system
a. To understand rising dominant styles in design and commercial art need to understand economic systems they exist in- capitalism.
i. One way to understand capitalism- through Foucault and Althusser
1. Capitalism as an ideological system
2. System of reciprocation between consumer and artist
a. Consumer responds to best way to advertise/disseminate ideas and products
b. Artist fulfills that demand and in turn influences the consumer ideologically
b. Industrial Revolution- shift from agrarian society to urban society
i. More leisure time
ii. New technologies:
1. Printing presses- newspapers and periodicals
2. Chromolithography
iii. New products that need advertising: medicines, cosmetics, clothing, etc

II. Dominant Styles up to WWI
a. Styles which developed as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution and developed from there. Reflected the needs and demands of the markets which these styles existed in- which consisted of critiquing a changing society, presenting an ideal alternative, and finally glossing over that reality to enhance it’s appeal.
b. Victorian 1830’s-early 1900’s
i. In England Prince Albert as design aficionado- helmed the Royal Commission for the Great Exhibition of 1851 which set design, architechture, and engineering standards in style
ii. Embrace of printing technologies- delicate and detailed prints and reproductions. Ornate and looked to Gothic and Rococo styles
iii. Satire: Thomas NAst
iv. Idealizing life, presenting a utopia: Charles Gibson
v. Absurdist as escapism: WS Gilbert
c. Arts and Crafts/Art Noveau 1900’s-1917
i. Arts and Crafts arose as a revolt against the machine- stressed hand craft was mostly book arts. Promoted by Century Guild, Arts and Crafts Society, Art-Workers Guild
1. William Morris- established Kelmscott Press and became defacto leader of movement. Students were Aubrey Beardsley and Eric Gill
ii. Later Arts and Crafts developed into Art Noveau
1. Extended ideas of Arts and Crafts- art should be in every facet of daily life
2. Curvilinear forms drawn from natural surroundings
3. Reacting against academic styles and machines- but became big business as it was used to enhance the appeal of industrial objects.
4. High visibility- first commercial style to be applied to a broad spectrum meant it spread quickly across the world
iii. Sachplakt
1. Alternative style to Art Noveau which came out of Germany- simplicity in design. Used in advertising.

III. Styles after WWI and before WWII
a. Western economies were reinventing themselves after the war. Art Noveau had become irrelevant- seen as excessive. In France, Italy, and Germany- used art to help market their exports to speed economic recovery which led to the development of new styles.
b. Art Deco
i. Revealed in Paris during the Exposition des Arts Decoratifs and Industriels Modernes.
ii. A streamlined version of Art Noveau- retained the stylization but shed the excessive curvilinear forms in favor of hard edges and graphic flatness

IV. Post-Depression to Post-WWII
a. Great Depression- Art Deco seen as excessive (not sure about that maybe you guys can shed some light)
b. Romanticism/Realism/Rockwe
llian becomes appealing in America
i. Restructuring ideals- rationalism reaction to ideologies that created WWII (Nazism, fascism)
ii. Propaganda- American dream, rally people to fight WWII
iii. Trying to promote a consumer society to recover economically
c. Pulp becomes a form of Realism used as escapism
i. Evolves into modern comics
ii. Comic Artists Guild

V. Push Pin
a. By mid 50’s ideals of post WWII started to become irrelevant, artists started to question American Dream
b. Seymour Chwast and Milton Glaser- Push Pin Studios 1955
i. Rejecting sentimentality of Realism
ii. Looked to past for influence
iii. Embraced traditional media as a rejection of photography (photography=realism), hand lettering
c. Led to reinterpretations of past styles (neo-victorian, neo-expressionism etc), led to psychedelic style, punk
d. Mirrored societies questioning of American morals and values

VI. Conclusion
a. These prevailing styles and forms tell the story of a middle class that responded to world events, creating demands for a visual culture that changed with them.

Consumer Illustration Styles/Influences- Victorian-Digital

Rising Middle Class
Styles and Illustrators

Victorian Era
A rise in illustration in England- Prince Albert patron of design, and industrial revolution, spread to USA. Birth of political/satirical/editor
ial illustration as a response to uncertainties of industrial revolution included comic and narrative, also lifestyle/fashion as promoting “ideal” society is response to same uncertainties of industrial revolution. Printing technologies allowed for full color imagery to be used in advertisements- chromolithography. Before it was juts text.

Arthur Rackham- 1900’s childrens books. English

W.S. Gilbert- 1870’s-80’s

F.M. Howarth- late 1800’s early comics USA

Jose Guadalupe Posada- late 1800’s Mexican political cartoonist

George Cruikshank- mid 1800’s caricaturist/book illustrator

Albert D. Blashfield- LIFE magazine illustration contributor 1860’s-1920’s

Thomas Nast- political cartoonist

Charles Gibson- creator of “Gibson Girls”

Joseph Keppler- founder of Puck an American illustrated magazine

Daumier- French political satirist

Important periodicals/magazines of the time:
LIFE, Puck, Harpers, Ladies Home Journal, The Illustrated London News

Arts and Crafts/Art Noveau/Sachplakat 1900-1917

Applied art and design. Organic and nature inspired and Symbolist. Meant to make industry more easily digested. Product advertisements, bicycles, medicines- extended the idea of the Gibson girl- sex sells. Alternately in Germany Lucian Bernhard and the object poster- super simplified design mostly for advertising- early graphic design. After WWI drop in consumerism and these styles phased out gave rise to German Expressionism which wasn’t really connected to advertising.

Aubrey Beardsley

William Morris

Maxfield Parrish

Coles Phillips

William Bradley

Lucian Bernhard

Art Deco- post WWI 1917-1930’s
Western world reinventing their governments and economies. Streamlined version of Art Noveau and influenced by Cubism. Modern and futurist- predominantly a commercial style. Identifiable graphic code recognized internationally- emerged simultaneously in every industrialized nation. Airbrush was the most used media. Flapper look introduced.

Rockwell Kent

Jean Carlu

Fortunato Depero

Between WWI and end of WWII peak in these styles. Photography was not yet dominant in commercial arts, but informed these styles. Purpose was to accentuate text or product, or act as propaganda. Abstraction was not acceptable because clarity in communication and representation was primary- emphasis on figure, composition, light. Growing consumerism in post depression America led to increased demand for advertising illustration and propaganda. In America to promote an ideal America- Rockwellian. “Golden Age” of illustration- took inspirations from classical art- Michelangelo, Raphael.
Important Publications etc: war propaganda, LIFE, Colliers, Saturday Evening Post, Ladies Home Journal, Reader’s Digest, American Magazine, various products.
Important groups: WPA, Ashcan school, Brandywine Illustrators, Charles E. Cooper Studios

Important Illustrators:
Homer Pyle
Winslow Homer
NC Wyeth, Andrew Wyeth
Norman Rockwell
JC Leyendecker

Connected to Representational/Realism, aimed at adolescent men, developed into comic culture. Different from representational in that it was escapist, but inspired by realism. More exaggerated to indulge in sex, danger, adventure. Idea of pin-up girl. Also different was interest in science fiction- as connected to escapism. Eventually Comic Guild was established which setup censorship and content guidelines
Important publications etc: Popular Science, Popular Mechanics, Dime Mystery Stories, Esquire, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, Ballyhoo

Virgil Finlay
Norman Saunders
Walter Baumhofer
George Petty

Post WWII founded in 1955 by Seymour Cwast and Milton Glaser. Sought to redefine post war design. Rebel against sentimental Realism as photography became more prevalent in advertising/editorial/etc, and looked for inspiration in pre WWI design- Victorian, Nouveau, and Art Deco and other forms. Also incorporated text into designs- hand drawn texts. Rejection of photography- traditional media and collage. Illustrations were no longer literal and open to the conceptual. Pushpin opened the door for other illustrators to experiment with other styles outside of Realism.
Important Illustrators:
Seymour Chwast
Milton Glaser
Ed Sorrel
Barry Zaid

Late 70’s and 80’s nihilistic and anarchistic movement. Untrained and purposefully “bad” design, DIY. Led to naïve art.
Important publications: Punk
Important Artists:
Bruce Carleton
Gary Panter
Scott Neary

Technological/Digital revolution changed the way illustration was produced-created a style which used digital technique to mimick traditional art forms and a style which embraced the pixel as parody.

Comics 1910s-1920s:

I know since we changed up the structure of things I am no longer doing comics. So, Alex, you can use any of the stuff from this that helps your research.

-Winsor McCay's Little Nemo in Slumberland(began Oct 15, 1095) set new standard for the genre: good draftsmanship, produced in full color
-common themes: Children, ex. Loyonel Feininger The Kin-der-Kids(April 29, 1906), Merrill Blosser Freckles and His Friends(Sept 20,1915), Gene Byrnes Reg'lar Fellas(c. 1916), R.M. Brinkerhoff's Little Mary Mixup(1917), Edwina Dumm Cap Stubbs and Trippie(early 1918), Ernie Bushmiller Nancy, Carl Ed Harold Teen(May 4, 1919)
-Also family ex. George MaMaus Bringing Up Father(Jan 2, 1913) was about married life, Jimmy Murphy Toots and Casper(Dec 17, 1918), Sidney Smith The Gumps, George Herriman Krazy Kats(also about enduring quality of love which would have gone over the heads of the children reading, The Family Upstairs(Aug 1, 1910)
-Animals also often used: Uncle Wiggly(c. 1919), Peter Rabbit(c.1920)
-Sunday supplements, imitated weekly comic magazines, started in part for kids, but they also had adult themes(that would go over the heads of children)
-Clare Briggs and H. T. Webster both did daily comics whose subject's changed by day: sometimes focusing on children, other times on their parents
-Thomas A. Dorgan: did sport comics, Indoor Sports and Outdoor Sports
-J. R. Williams comics about machine shop and open range(west), Out Out Way
-Comics reflected interests and aspirations of the middle class
-popularity of movies also inspired: Ed Wheelan Midget Movies(April 8, 1918) later became Minute Movies(1921), characters are actors who are appearing in a movie, E. C. Segar Thimble Theatre(Dec 19, 1919) later in Jan 17, 1929 Segar introduced some new secondary character who took over the strip: Popeye , Chester Gould did a similar Fillum Fables (c. 1927), before he created Dick Tracy
-Growing liberation of American woman = comics aimed at this new audience: Cliff Sterrett's Polly and Her Pals(Dec 4, 1912) humor in contrast between heroine attitude and that of her Victorian parents, Martin Branner Winnie Winkle, (Sept 20, 1920) and Russ Westover Tille and the Toiler(Jan 3, 1921) both about life of working girl
-Emergence of flapper also had influence: C. A. Voight Betty(1920), Edgar Martin Boots and His Buddies(Feb18, 1924), Jefferson Machamer Petting Patty(1928), John Held Jr. Merely Margy(1929), Virgina Huget's Molly and the Manicure Girl(c.1928), Ethel Hays Flapper Fanny Says(1924)
-Chicago Tribune publisher, Robert McCormack, thought his readers needed help learning how to care for/repair their automobiles, which where just starting to become affordable for the middle class, had staff cartoonist Frank King to add a panel about car maintenance to weekly page of comics called The Rectangle, created Gasoline Alley in 1918
-Strip changed greatly in 1921: McCormack's cousin/ Tribune partner, Joseph Patterson, felt the strip was alienating women = wanted a baby in it
-but the main character, Walt Wallet, wasn't married, so he was made to discover a baby on his doorstep on Valentine's Day 1921
-Arrive of baby = strip developed a day to day story line, grew into a family strip
-strip then gained its most unique feature: its characters aged

Hervey, Robert. Children of the Yellow Kid. (Seattle: Frye Art Museum, 1998)

Magazine Illustration 1910s-1920s

-1st illustrations early 19th century: “blackies” small silhouettes
-tech advances: illustration offers wide range of subjects in number of mediums which were now able to be reproduced in print
-during mid-19th century, before photo reproduction perfect & rise of motion picture, mag illustration heyday: captured news, commentary, entertainment, leading illustrators = celebrities
-Reporter illustrators: Winslow Homer, Frederic Remington, Joseph Pennell, introduced readers to other cultures, pictorial essays
-Early 1900s illustrators: Charles Dana Gibson, Harrison Fisher, James Montgomery Flagg(created Uncle Sam), a bit later: J. C. Leyendecker, Norman Rockwell(p180-183)
--pre-war era: start of women's magazines, were about fashion, decorative arts, but also women's role in society
-1879 Congress creates special low postage rate for magazines, to increase distribution, soon after popularity of muckraking magazines rises: resulted in breaking of monopolies, getting laws(women's comp, pure food and drug act), railroads, life insurance companies = regulated
-declined finally in 1917 post rate rises again
-WWI magazines helped with war effort, also pub pictures of war
-after war: magazines fight for humane values, concerns of unrepresented
-Women's magazines: raised money for causes, debate about alcohol, some suggest women work in factories to free men for the war
-After the War: Jazz Age, fiction became more popular in magazines
-Popular Magazines of the time that published both fiction and nonfiction: The Smart Set, Vanity Fair, The New Yorker(just stated), The Nation, The New Republic: had great influence over politics, art and culture
-American Mercury: very influential in the 20s, 1922 Reader's Digest started, 1923 Time started
-Reader's Digest refused to pub cigarette ads, pub <50 articles on dangers of smoking
-New found leisure time = hobby magazines become popular, Popular Mechanics, Mechanix Illustrated, Popular Science all started. (p19-29)

Amy Janello and Brennon Jones, The American Magazine, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1991)

Adverstising 1900s & 1910s

-decorative type and ornate compositions target new consumers
-time of great progress, technological advancement
-ads: promoted aesthetic ideals, lots of Victorian beauties
-art nouveau design came to America from France: added a sense of elegance to design
-time before hawking/pitching became pseudo-sci to selling stuff
-earnest salesmanship used instead, some ads were humorous but never in a way that pocked fun at the consumer
-spiritual homilies were frequently sprinkled throughout the sales pitch, many ads contained long blurbs of text
- first time personal hygiene ads become popular: soap was one of the first products to be soled nationally, many brands = flooded market
-to differentiate brands each company tried to promote a lifestyle choice with their ads
-ex. Sapolio soap slogan: “The first step away from self-respect is lack of care in personal cleanliness . . . You can't be healthy, or pretty, or even good, unless you are clean.”
-ads with exotic flavor = popular
-America was the largest commercial manufacturer in domestic and foreign markets
-magazines/newspapers most popular place for ads
-1825: fewer the 25 magazines in America, 1850s: 600, 1900: 5,000
-tech advances in printing/distribution = drop of cover price, higher literacy rate = growing readership
-new market = many more product choices
-1908 50% of mag = ads
-new commuter class gave rise to billboard ads, street cars, train “car cards” became new outlets for ads
-prior to 1900 ads: enticed readers with false claims, designed by newspapers/job printers and were not designed very well artistically
-after 1900: influenced by European tradition(café life poster art) well designed ads(graphically) sophisticated pitches now in demand
-advertising came into its own as a field of illustration
-1903: Walter Dill Scott pub 1st official manual for advertising, The Theory of Advertising, contained templates for effective ad composition
-leading ad agencies: J. Walter Thompson, N.W. Ayer & Son, E.A. Wheatly, Pettingill & Co.
-debates in industry: what makes an ad most effective the text or the image
-in 1920s words became more prominent, but before: full page four-color images were printed pictures preferred over type
-H. C. Brown, in journal Art in Advertising, “A good bright sketch will attract attention everywhere. Yet it should be reinforced by a concise statement in clear English covering the merits of the article.”
-many golden age illustrators did some work for advertising
-ads incorporated popular styles of the day: refs to children's book illustration, rococo and Victorian style, art nouveau, many ads also contained visual vignettes, stories
-usually ads were not totally integrated with type, but most effective ones often were
-magazine ads did not fight with text heavy editorial pages.
-most illustration: painted, drawn engraved b/c artist could easily fabricate reality using these mediums, sometimes photography would be use, but these would be manipulated for dramatic purposes, ex. hand colored
-beautiful women = popular subject, ref to Pre-Raphaelite paintings
-smoking = male activity, women art often shown in ads, but never with a cigarette in their mouths until the 1920s
-“folk characters” used to sell, ex. Aunt Jemima, Cream of Wheat man, human faces of products: “housewife's best friend”
-ads created narrative, sometimes series of ads building off same narrative
-WWI sexuality started being used in ads
-suffrage/female liberation rise = more images of women smoking, drinking, showing skin, culminating in Roaring Twenties

Heinmann, Jim. All-American Ads 1900-1910, (Los Angeles: Taschen, 2005)

Important Newspaper Comic Figures

Happy Hologan- Early 1900's Comic that depicted an Irish Tramp. It appeared on Sundays in the New York and San Francisco Hearst newspapers. This comic ran for 32 years using different scenarios but similar slap stick style gags.

The Yellow Kid- 1st comic strip character ever created.Bald, buck toothed child that hung around with other children in the ghettos. The yellow refers to his big yellow shirt he wore which was often the placement for type. A throwback to how advertisements were once displayed.

Buster Brown- Represntative for the Brown shoe company. Used for several years in short subject comic strips. Characters included Buster, sister Mary Jane, and dog Tigi

Little Jimmy- Strip that was one of the longest running in comic strip history (54 years). Depicted a boy ( jimmy) who constantly forgot what he was to be doing.

Mutt and Jeff- First Daily comic strip featuring reoccurring characters. Somewhat of an odd couple kid of feel.

Research - Timneline of Events

-1st electric street lights in Wabash Indiana
-James Garfield is elected
-circuses- PT Barnum

-Red Cross established

-Standard oil is incorporated
-Immigration Act

-Ladies home journal is established
-1st overhead electric lights in roselle NJ
-1st vaudeville theater
-Brooklyn bridge opened
-Kroger Co. founded- supermarket
-LIFE magazine founded
-cocaine isolated
-The Black Arrow published by Robert Louis Stevenson in Young Folks; A Boys' and Girls' Paper of Instructive and Entertaining Literature,

-1st edition of Oxford English Dicitionary
-Statue of Liberty started
-Grover Cleveland elected
-Wash monument completed
-economic depression in US

-roller coaster patented
-rabies vaccine
-benz motor wagon patented
-1st bicycle by john starley
-home insurance bldg in chicago first skyscrapper

-haymarket riot gets 8 hour workday
-john pemberton invents coke
-geronimo surrenders
-will stan jr invents first induction coil
-follies bergere

-Dawes Act
-Wild Bills Wild West show opens in London
-gramaphone patented by emile breliner

-national geographic founded
-benjamin harrison elected

-eiffel tower built
-land run of 1889
-1st electric power line completed in wash state
-wall st. journal established
-childrens charter
-1st jukebox
-moulin rougue opens

-united mine workers founded
-sherman antitrust act
-silver purchase act

Important Artists(Magazine and Ads) 1900-20s

Winslow Homer: Feb 24, 1836 – Sept 29, 1910
-watercolor and lithography
-trained in Boston, moved to New York in 1859
-famous for Civil War illustrations pub in Harper's Weekly
-after known as landscape painter, showed relationship between man and nature(even when there wasn't a figure in the composition)
-When to Paris in1867, influenced by Japanese prints: strong composition, bold brush strokes
-moved to English fishing village of Tynemouth, work became darker
(Oxford Art Online)

Joseph Pennell: July 4, 1857 – April 23, 1926
-attended evening classes at the Pennsylvania School of Industrial Art, later the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, very outspoken = never graduated
-1880 he opened his own studio
-first published work appeared in Scribner’s Monthly in July 1881
-famous for drawings of American cites
-Began doing etchings
-1913-17 traveled, WWI battle sites
-after moved back to NY and started teaching
(Oxford Art Online)

Frederic Remington:Oct 4, 1861 – Dec 26, 1909
-born in Canton, NY, and studied at School of Fine Art at Yale University (1878–80)
-1881: traveled Dakotas, Montana, Arizona, and Texas, sketched frontier life and finished it when he got back to NY
-sold his first drawing to Harper's Weekly in 1882
-illustrated books and magazines, his own short stories
-famous for Wild West illustrations-based on life
-also did some in sculpture(figurines)
(Oxford Art Online)

Charles Dana Gibson: Sept 14, 1867 – Dec 23, 1944
-Started at Arts Student League, quit finical reasons
-sold 1st illustration to Life mag in 1886
-began to use the pen more, eventually his technique became more flexible, used longer stroke
-new process of photomechanical engraving = pen drawings were more easily reproduced in print
-“Gibson Girl” & “Gibson Man” term coined, girl especially popular, were young and good looking, serene, secure, fashionable, remote, but not too distant, were an ideal that the rapidly expanding middle class could reach for
-WWI made propaganda, but never regained same popularity in newly disillusioned world
Pitz, Henry. The Gibson Girl and Her America, (New York: Dover Publications, 1969)

William H. Bradley: July 10, 1868 – 1962

J. C. Leyendecker: March 23, 1874 – July 25, 1951

Harrison Fisher:1877-1934

James Montgomery Flagg: June 18, 1877 – May 27, 1960
-sold first drawing to children's magazine St. Nicholas when he was 12
-after 1892 pub in many popular magazines, and his illustrations were collected into books
-also did fine art portraits, but was most known for commercial work
-most famous for “I Want You” Uncle Sam poster first used in WWI
(Encyclopedia Britannica Online)

Coles Phillips: 1880 – June 13, 1927

Lucian Bernhard: March 15, 1883 – May 29, 1972

Norman Rockwell: Feb 3, 1894 – Nov 8, 1978
-studied at the Chase Art School, the National Academy of Art, and the Art Students' League, all in NY, also studied in Paris
-began working at Saturday Evening Post in 1916
-also did illustrations for corporate calendars and youth magazines(St Nicholas, Youth’s Companion, American Boy )
-captured spirit of middle class America, but was dismissed by “highbrow” artists and critics
-technique: loose idea sketch of the idea, set up then models, costumes, background and props, make individual drawings of parts or photograph everything(starting in the 30s), full-scale detailed drawing, color sketches, final painting
-1963 went to work at Look magazine, illustrations dealt with political themes of 60s, ex. racial segregation
-Famous: Rosie the Riveter
(Oxford Art Online)